Bladder Cancer

Stage 3 Bladder Cancer

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer begins in the cells of bladder (hollow muscular organ present in lower abdomen that stores urine). It occurs when cells in the bladder start growing abnormally. These abnormal cells form a tumor.

It mostly begins in the urothelial cells which found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) and connect the kidneys to the bladder. It is one of the most common cancers in men and mostly affects older adults. But it can happen at any age. Mostly it is diagnosed in early stage when bladder is highly treatable. However, even early-stage bladder cancer may recur in the bladder.

What are causes of bladder cancer?

Causes of bladder cancer include:
• Smoking and other tobacco use
• Exposure to chemicals, especially working in a job that requires exposure to chemicals
• Past radiation exposure
• Chronic irritation of the lining of the bladder
• Parasitic infections, especially in people who are from or have traveled to certain areas outside the United States

What are types of bladder cancer?

Based on in which type of bladder cell the cancer begins, there are 3 types of bladder cancers. Your cancer treatment plan depends on type of bladder cancer.

Types of bladder cancer include:
Urothelial carcinoma: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells connect the kidneys to the bladder. These cells get expand when bladder is full and contract when bladder is empty. These same cells also present inside of the ureters and the urethra, and hence cancers can form in those places as well.
Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of bladder cancer is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder like infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter. It is rare.
Adenocarcinoma: It begins in cells that forms mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. It is very rare.

What are risk factors of bladder cancer?

Factors that may increase bladder cancer risk include:
• Smoking: Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes causes accumulation of harmful chemicals in bladder and hence put the person into risk of bladder cancer. When a person smokes, chemicals in the smoke processed by body are excreted in urine. These harmful chemicals may damage the lining of bladder and hence increases risk of cancer.
Increasing age: Bladder cancer is mostly occur in older age. Though it can occur at any age, most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55.
Being male: Men are having greater risk of bladder cancer than women.
Exposure to certain chemicals: Being surrounded by certain chemicals may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Chemicals that increases risk of bladder cancer include arsenic and chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products.
Previous cancer treatment: Use of anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide in previous cancer treatment increases the risk of bladder cancer. Also, people who received radiation treatments aimed at the pelvis for a previous cancer are at higher risk of developing bladder cancer.
Chronic bladder inflammation: Chronic bladder infections or inflammations (cystitis) that may occur due to long-term use of a urinary catheter, may increase the risk of a squamous cell bladder cancer.
Personal or family history of cancer: If you’ve had history of bladder cancer, you’re more likely to get it again.

What are treatment options available for bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer treatment depends on a number of factors, like type of cancer, the grade of the cancer and stage of cancer. All factors are taken into consideration along with overall health of patient and treatment preferences.

Bladder cancer treatment may include:

  • Surgery:cancerous tissue are removed surgically.
  • Chemotherapy in the bladder (intravesical chemotherapy): It is usedto treat tumours that are confined to the lining of the bladder. But it has a high risk of recurrence or progression to a higher stage
  • Reconstruction:In some bladder cancers, complete bladder is removed and  new way for urine to exit the body is created.
  • Chemotherapy for the whole body (systemic chemotherapy): It is usedto increase the chance for a cure in a person having surgery to remove the bladder, or as a primary treatment in cases where surgery isn’t an option
  • Radiation therapy: Often used as a primary treatment in cases where surgery isn’t an option or isn’t desired.
  • Immunotherapy:Body’s own immune system is used to fight cancer cells.

Why choose Oncoxpert?

Oncoxpert is leading cancer hospital in India for the treatment of bladder cancer. It has been conceived with the objective of providing standardized comprehensive and state of the art cancer care across the country and is currently functional in five major cities Bangalore, Hyderabad Lucknow, Mumbai and Pune.  We at Oncoxpert, strive to provide holistic cancer treatment to the patients which involve multidisciplinary care with most advanced globally recommended treatment protocols.

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