Ovarian cancer

What is ovarian cancer?

Ovaries” are a couple of tiny organs existing in females which are the beginning of egg cells. These organs are placed in the pelvic area. Ovarian cancer refers to cancer that starts from these organs. Cancer is a situation where the normal cells of the body become abnormal and start developing and multiplying uncontrollably and gain the ability to spread throughout the body.

What are risk factors of ovarian cancer:

The division and addition of cells in an infinite way in the ovaries causes ovarian cancer. Though the root cause behind this cancer type is still unknown, many risk factors increase the chance of improving this disease.

• Family histories of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative (mother, daughter, or sister)
• Inherited variations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes
• Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal also called Lynch syndrome
• Endometriosis
• Postmenopausal hormone therapy
• Obesity
• Tall height

What are diagnosis methods ?

Physical exam and history

• CA-125 blood assay
• Ultrasound scan
• CT scan
• PET scan (positron emission tomography)
• MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging)
• Chest x-ray
• Biopsy

What are types of ovarian cancer?

Separated by the kind and type of cells in which cancer starts, there are three main types

1. Epithelial Ovarian Tumours – Epithelial Tumours grow from the cells that cover the surface of the fallopian tube.

2. Germ cell Ovarian Tumours – These are derived from the ova or egg-producing cells.

3. Cord-stromal Cell Ovarian Tumours – Termed as a rare class of tumors, these are derived from the connective tissue that creates female hormones and holds the ovary together.

What are symptoms of ovarian cancer?

In the first stages, ovarian cancer has several or no signs. Ovarian cancer symptoms are often overlooked as they are comparable to other illnesses that are normal and can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. However, if ovarian cancer signs usually come and go, getting expert help should be considered. Ovarian cancer symptoms include:

• Pain, swelling, or a feeling of stress in the abdomen or pelvis
• Vaginal bleeding that is large or unusual, mainly after menopause
• Vaginal record that is white, or colored with blood
• Lump in the pelvic area
• Gastrointestinal complications, such as gas, bloating, or constipation.

Though these symptoms may happen because of any other situation in the body, if someone has had one or more of these for a significant period, it is advisable to consult a cancer specialist. These signs might not be severe in the primary stage but as the tumor develops and cancer grows outside of the ovaries, the pain can become severe.

Prognosis

The chance of recovery depends on the following:

• Type and extent of ovarian cancer
• Stage and grade of the cancer
• If all of the tumors can be extracted by operation
• If there are variances in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes
• Age and general health of the patient

What are the treatment options for ovarian cancer?

Once the patient is through with some diagnostic examinations, the specialist may suggest one or more ovarian cancer treatment options depending on the stage. The main ovarian cancer treatment options include:

Surgery – Most ovarian cancers can be managed with surgery. The extent of operation needed usually depends on how far cancer has developed and also on the general health of the patient. In many cases, the disease is treatable even without the extraction of the uterus and ovaries. The main purpose of the operation is to eliminate cancer from the body.

Chemotherapy – When cancer has spread in other parts of the body, the patient must undergo Chemotherapy. It is a systematic method in which the pills are given in a way that they transfer all parts of the body. Most of the time, the drugs are either included in a vein, through a thin tube into the abdominal cavity or by mouth.

Hormone Therapy – hormone-blocking medications are used to battle cancer in Hormone Therapy. This treatment option helps treat ovarian stromal tumors.

Targeted Therapy – A new treatment model, the targeted treatment uses medicines that attack the cancer cells while causing less harm to the normal cells.

Radiation Therapy – The treatment of high-energy X-rays to harm cancer cells is known as Radiation Therapy. However, Radiation Therapy is applied parallelly with chemotherapy or when a patient does not respond to other treatment options.At Oncoxpert Hospital, we have the best Oncologist in Pune who specializes in managing ovarian cancer with surgery, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

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